Table of Contents

A note to my english speaking visitors: This website only serves to give you an idea about my german book Codierte Kunst (Coded Art).

about the Book | Preface & Introduction | How to order the Book

CODIERTE KUNST – Kunst Programmieren mit Snap!
CODED ART – Programming Art with Snap!


  • The idea and the motivation for this book: combining computer art & programming
  • No systematic programming course, but „learning exactly what is needed to solve a problem“
  • General aim: To build up an „aesthetic laboratory“ (according to Nees)
  • Tracing early computer art, that is doing computer art yourself
  • Implementation of concrete art and other art genres


  • Trigger I: 50 years of computer art
  • Trigger II: 50 years programming language Logo and Paperts constructionism
  • Chapter Overview


  • What is computer art, „artificial art“
  • Introduction based on image examples and features:

  • Example 1: Nake Line Hatching
  • Example 2: Lecci Shift 2
  • Example 3: Noll Sinusoide
  • Example 4: Nees axis-parallel aberration
  • Example 5: Noll vertical-horizontal
  • Example 6: Franke Squares
  • Example 7: Molnar Structure of squares
  • Basic elements of computer art
  • Algorithmic Art
  • From the plotter to the drawing robot

Recoding and Remixing

  • From reprogramming (through image analysis, design and structure, necessary program components) to variations and further developing
  • Graphic elements and programming concepts

What is Snap!

  • VVisual programming
  • The beginnings of Logo
  • Papert’s constructionist approach
  • Constructionism and Visual Programming

We start Snap!

  • Call in the browser
  • Components of the programming environment
  • Orientation on the stage

Getting started in Snap!

  • Before we start with real pictures we need a few basics:
  • Construction and handling of the system
  • Direct mode
  • One after the other …
  • Repetition (Homage à Steller: Rhythms)
  • Modularization and extensibility
  • Generalization (
  • Homage à Vilder: Variations on 9 Squares)
  • Control Structures (
  • Homage à Riley: Movement in Squares)

Impossible? That’s impossible!

  • Language extensions of Snap! through own program extensions
  • own collection: Pi, exponentiation etc.
  • Random numbers made by yourself
  • Tools, modules, costumes, sounds

Everything is nice and colorful here …

  • Color models (RGB, HSV)
  • Homage à Mihich: Painting #207

All by chance … the simulated intuition

  • Painting by blots …
  • Random numbers in Snap!

The figure building kit

  • Basic elements of computer art
  • Points
  • Homage à Hugonin: Binary Rhythm
  • Homage à Müller: 64/6
  • Homage à Struycken: Komputerstrukturen
  • Homage à Molnar: 96 Punkte
  • Lines and straight lines
  • Homage à Sol LeWitt: Bands of Color
  • Polygons
  • Homage à Noll: Gaussian QuadraticRhythm
  • Curved lines
  • Homage à Nees: Arcs
  • Areas
  • Homage à Molnar: 25 Squares

Hommage à Laposky: From the analog to the digital

  • Laposky – Precursor of computer art
  • Recoding Lissajous
  • Remixing Lissajous (I): Sinus-Cosinus-Additions
  • Remixing Lissajous (II): Attachments

Homage à Marcus & Co.: Pattern from figures

  • Patterns of repetitive, area-covering structures
  • Homage à Aaron Marcus: Urbane Nova
  • Homage à Komura: Optical Effect of Inequality
  • Homage à Bartnig: 256 …
  • Homage à Mohr: Scratch Code
  • Excursos: Stamping instead of painting
  • Homage à Sýkora: Black and white structure
  • Homage à Coqart: Structured Squares
  • Excursos: Procedures as data

Homage à Nees: Gravel

  • Recoding & Remixing one of the most famous images of early computer art
  • Code comparison: Nees gravel
  • Recoding I: iterative
  • Recoding II: recursively; reprogramming
  • Remixing Gravel: shapes and colors

A block is a block is a block …

  • An insert about recursion with
  • Excursus: local vs. global variable

Homage à Kolomyjec: Boxes

  • An early recoding of Gravel

Homage à Nees: The language G

  • A reference to the problem-oriented language G for the generative graphics, which is embedded in the support language ALGOL 60
  • Excursus: Arrays and Lists in Snap!
  • Recoding Disturbed tissues

Homage à Nake: Simple graphics

  • A chapter on his attempts to bring certain vectors to paper
  • Rectangle crosshatching
  • Labyrinth
  • Droves of straight lines

Homage à Noll: Stile studies

  • Recoding Noll, Remixing Riley: Sinusoide
  • Recoding Noll, Remixing Mondrian: Composition With Lines

Homage à Molnar: disorders

  • Recoding & Remixing: One percent disorder
  • Recoding & Remixing: (dis)orders

Homage à Schneeberger: SNE KAO

  • Reiner Schneebergers graphics system SNE COMP ART, with which he wants to open „an immediately practical access to computer graphics and especially to computer art“
  • Recoding and Remixing of SNE KAO

Homage à Sýkora: Painting lines

  • Recoding and Remixing of Lines

Everything in motion

  • Remixing also involves putting computer art in motion
  • Color installation: painting … wiping … painting
  • Excursos: Working with objects (I) -Sprites
  • Remixing Schotter (II) – Clones
  • Homage à CTG: Return to Square
  • Homage à Csuri: Hummingbird
  • Homage à Resch: Network structures

Kinetic Art

  • Central element is the impression of movement, by the movement of the observer, an optical illusion or the self-movement of the object
  • Homage à Gerhard von Graevenitz: 5 black rectangles on white
  • Homage à van Weeghel: Dynamic Structures
  • Excursos: Coupled objects
  • Homage à Talman: k25

Even more computer art …

  • Another 18 selected examples of prominent representatives of early computer art and other art genres
  • ASCII-Art: Texts as graphics
  • Homage à Barbadillo: Arch images
  • Homage à Bartnik: Square development
  • Homage à Beckmann: DONKO Generator
  • Homage à Beyls: Grid Based Systems
  • Homage à Csuri & Schaffer: Feeding Time
  • Homage à CTG: Random Windows
  • Homage à Franke: Squares and circles
  • Homage à Gruppo N: Dynamic Visions
  • Homage à Korneder: Centers
  • Homage à Land & Cohen: : Flowers
  • Homage à Nash: Triangle 9
  • Homage à Roubaud: Circular segments
  • Homage à Schott: Zerkiemung
  • Homage à Sonderegger: Butterfly
  • Homage à Steller: Tectonics
  • Homage à Strand u.a.: Turning areas
  • Homage à von Graevenitz: Great horizontal distribution


  • In der OP-Art, geometrical abstraction and optical illusions were used by pattern-like repetitions, which are shifted against each other in different planes
  • Homage à Besemer: Swoop Wave Bulge
  • Homage à Devecchi: URMNT

Programming Art ?!

  • The generation and output of the images by means of the computer can also be applied to other art forms
  • Homage à Josef Albers: Interaction of Color
  • Homage à Morellet: Random principle
  • A little excursos: Painting with mouse and finger
  • Homage à Jackson Pollock: Drip Painting

Think out of the box

  • Mathematics and Art
  • Biology, mathematics and art
  • Evolutionary Art
  • Painting machines and painting robots
  • Software tools for art production
  • Excursos: Live-Coding with Snap!

Conclusion and outlook

  • Media Art: Interaction & Multimedia & Networking

Literature & Picture Credits
Appendix A:

  • Tips and Tricks for Snap!
  • Help and making work easier in Snap!
  • Save and load
  • Further sources of information

Appendix B: The Command Blocks of Snap!
Appendix C: Block library